ภูมิปัญญาและกรรมวิธีการเพาะปลูก

Wisdom and Cultivation

Transplant field(Na Dam)
  Transplant field(Na Dam) Na Dam is the process of planting and nursing rice grain in a separate field. After growing into rice seedlings, farmers transplant them onto the real field. Na Dam is done in the areas where there is adequate manpower.
1
Soil Preparation
Plough the field using cattle or small tractor and make ridges between different plots to keep the water in the fields. The soil ready for ploughing must contain suitable moisture level. There are three phases of plouging. The first phase is to rid the field of weeds. The second phase is done across the original ploughing tracks one week after the first phase. The last phase is to plough again using rake to completely eradicate weeds from the fields and level the surface for transplanting.
2
Seedling Preparation
Prepare the rice seedlings for transplant to maximise yield. Healthy seedlings are those that grow at the same speed and height. There are many ways to prepare seedlings, but the most important way is to carefully choose the most healthy and appropriate strain of seeds.
3
Transplanting
Transplanting must be done in evenly-spaced rows to give space for farmers to pull weed and add fertilizers. The spaces also allows the rice seedlings to grow well. The water level at the time of transplanting should be minimal in order to prevent weeds and to sustain the uprightedness of the transplanted seedlings.
Paddy-sown Field (Na Waan)
  Paddy-sown Field (Na Waan) is the process of planting rice directly into the field. Na Waan is commonly found in Thailand as it does not take much time and labour. Na Waan is divided into many types:
1
Dry Sow (Waan Samruai) is to sow seeds into dry fields after ploughing without reploughing. The seeds will fall into the cracks between chunks of soil. When it rains, the seeds will grow sprouts automatically.
2
Moist Sow (Waan Khrad Klob) in case of moist field and rain on season, farmers first plough the field and sow the seeds into the newly-ploughed field. Given that the soil is already moist, the seedlings start to grow instantly after sowing. The rice under Waan Khrad Klob method will have strong stalk as the seeds are buried quite deep into the soil.
3
Rush Sow (Waan Lang Khithai) in case of delayed but heavy rains, rice farmers who have no time to do three ploughs cut the method short to just two. With this method, seedlings may be prone to weeds and rats.
4
Wet Sow (Waan Nam Tom) this sowing technique is popular in areas of good irrigational system or adequate water source. Seedlings planted with this method are nursed and then transplanted in puddled levelled fields.
Paddy-thrown Field (Na Yone)
  This is the new-age technique of growing rice. By parachuting rice seedlings into the field. Researches have found that paddy-thrown field produces higher yield, wastes less seedlings, labour, and time, than from conventional methods. This is considered another good technique for areas with heavy rate of pests and weeds, and areas designated for organic agriculture.
The process of doing Na Yone is more or less similar to that of Na Dam. Farmers must prepare healthy seedlings and ploughed field beforehand. But the difference is, in Na Yone, farmers tend to “throw” the seedlings into puddled field. The throwing projectile makes the rice stalk stand straight or slightly tilted. After throwing, the water is levelled up to give better control of weeds.
Paddy-dropped Field (Na Yod)
  Paddy-dropping technique is mostly used on hillside slopes that cannot be levelled. With this technique, farmers start by cutting weeds and cleaning the field of contaminants before making holes using sharpened wooden stick. Holes are approximately 25 centimetres apart. Some 5-10 rice seeds are then dropped into each hole. As there is no way to keep the puddle on the slopes, farmers are resorted to use short-lived rice strains that are planted in the beginning of the rainy season and harvested just after the rainy season.
Rice Terrace (Na Khan Bandai)
  Rice Terrace technique is used mostly on hillside slopes and field on steep mountainsides. Rice terrace technique is divided into two types: slope fields and rice terraces. Planting rice on slopes can only depend on rainfalls, while rice terrace is done with levelling parts of the slopes into several patches of levelled fields with clay walls to keep puddle inside.